網站地圖關于我們

查看相冊 View Gallery
解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第1張圖片

維萊特公園是“世界上最大的解構建筑群”
Parc de la Villette is the "largest deconstructed building in the world"

由專筑網逸希,小R編譯

解構主義系列經典作品是由Bernard Tschumi在巴黎設計建造的維萊特公園(Parc de la Villette),這是該運動最早且最負有影響力的項目。

法國-瑞士建筑師Tschumi將該公園設計成一個大型的解構主義建筑群。

Tschumi說:“這與自然無關,這是一個紀念城市發展的時刻。我稱它為世界上最大的解構主義建筑,雖然它是一座建筑,但被分解成了許多碎片!

Continuing our deconstructivism series, we take a look at Bernard Tschumi's Parc de la Villette in Paris, one of the movement's earliest and most influential projects.
French-Swiss architect Tschumi designed the park as a deconstructed building.
"It was not about nature, per se, it was an urban moment," Tschumi told Dezeen. "I call it the largest deconstructed building in the world as it's one building, but broken down in many fragments."

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第2張圖片
▲ 維萊特公園是一個早期的解構主義項目。攝影:François-Xavier Bouchart
Parc de la Villette is an early deconstructivist project. Photo is by François-Xavier Bouchart


Tschumi于1983年贏得了巴黎北部55公頃公園的設計競賽,擊敗了包括OMA、扎哈·哈迪德和讓·努維爾在內的470多名參賽者。

該項目是法國總統Francois Mitterrand關于毗鄰城市東北部郊區的半工業性經濟和文化發展愿景的一部分。

該項目要求建造一座“21世紀的城市公園”,可以容納復雜的文化和娛樂設施。

Tschumi won an international competition in 1983 to design the 55-hectare Parc de la Villette in northern Paris, beating more than 470 entrants including OMA, Zaha Hadid and Jean Nouvel.
The project was part of president Francois Mitterrand's vision for the economic and cultural development of a semi-industrial district bordering the city's northeastern suburbs.
The brief called for an "urban park for the 21st century" that could accommodate a complex programme of cultural and entertainment facilities.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第3張圖片
▲ 公園內有35個紅色亭子。攝影:J M Monthiers
The park contains thirty five red pavilions. Photo is by J M Monthiers


Tschumi設計提出的“社會和文化公園”包含35個建筑單體,有意地偏離了公園作為傳統、有序的休閑空間的古典詮釋。

建筑師想要創造一個能夠開展活動和進行互動的場所,沒有設計參考案例,同時也并非設計一個傳統的公園,專注于馴服自然和打造人工景觀。

“我想創造一個人們可以占用也可以不占用的空間;蛘哒f,在某種意義上,它不會對人們的活動產生限制!痹O計師說。

“主要的設計建造策略是激發人們通過自己的方式來使用公園!

Tschumi's proposal for a "social and cultural park" containing 35 architectural follies intentionally departed from the classical interpretation of a park as an ordered space for relaxation.
The architect wanted to create a place for activity and interaction, without precedent, rather than designing a traditional park focused on taming nature and producing an artificial landscape.
"I wanted to create a place that people could appropriate, that they could take over and it would not, in a sense, constrain them," he said.
"Much of the strategy was about letting people invent their own way to use the park."

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第4張圖片
▲ 這些建筑單體被安排在公園內部空間的各個網格上
The follies are arranged on a grid in the park


結合景觀特征而分布的建筑單體,似乎已被打破,并重新組裝,加強了不完整和無序的感覺,使整個公園具有鮮明的個性。

Tschumi解釋說:“身體在空間中的運動非常重要,無論是在類似公園的大尺度空間上亦或是電影長廊中,甚至還包含建筑單體的內部空間有滑塊、樓梯、電梯等!

該設計支持的理論原則得到了法國哲學家Jacques Derrida的啟發,導致它后來被視為解構主義運動的先驅作品。

Jacques Derrida以發明一種被稱為“解構主義”的符號學分析而聞名,這種分析對西方文化和哲學中的主流話語提出了質疑。

這種分析和打破既定慣例的愿望影響了Tschumi對空間模糊性的追求,以及對于空間形式或意義來說,沒有必須堅持的單一解答方式。

Tschumi曾經宣稱:“我對空間形式不感興趣。我覺得空間意義并非那么重要。然而,我贊成空間結構和句法的觀點,但沒有實際意義!

The follies distributed across the landscape feature forms that appear to have been broken apart and reassembled, enhancing the sense of imperfection and disorder that gives the park its distinctive personality.
"The movement of bodies in space was really important both at the large scale of the park – the cinematic promenade and all that – and within the follies themselves, which have rams, stairs, elevators," explained Tschumi.
The theoretical principles supporting the design, which were informed by the work of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, led to it later being viewed as one of the pioneering works of the deconstructivist movement.
Derrida is known for developing a form of semiotic analysis called "deconstruction", which questioned dominant discourses in Western culture and philosophy.
This desire to analyse and disrupt established conventions influenced Tschumi's pursuit of ambiguity and belief that there is no one interpretation of form or meaning that must be adhered to.
"I am not interested in form," Tschumi once proclaimed. "I attack the system of meaning. I am for the idea of structure and syntax, but no meaning."

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第5張圖片
▲ 該項目在現代藝術博物館的解構主義建筑展覽中展出。照片由Bernard Tschumi Architects提供。
The project was featured in MoMA's Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition. Photo courtesy of Bernard Tschumi Architects


該公園是Philip Johnson和Mark Wigley 于1988年在紐約當代藝術博物館(MoMA)舉辦的開創性展覽“解構主義建筑”(deconstructiist Architecture)中包含的七個項目之一。

在展覽目錄中,這個項目被描述為“偏離理想形式的一次精心準備的嘗試”,“通過將理想形式的每一次扭曲轉化為新的理想,從而獲得新的力量,而新的理想隨后又被再次扭曲!

這種對熟悉的建筑形式和建筑實踐的重新評估和扭曲的焦點在 Tschumi的作品中反復出現,在維萊特公園項目之前,Tschumi的作品主要采用理論、圖紙繪制和書面文本的形式,如《The Manhattan Transcripts》等(1976-1981年)。

The park was one of seven projects included by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley in their seminal 1988 exhibition, Deconstructivist Architecture, held at New York’s Museum of Modern Art (MoMA).
In the exhibition catalogue the project is described as "an elaborate essay in the deviation of ideal forms," that "gains its force by turning each distortion of an ideal form into a new ideal which is then itself distorted."
This focus on reassessing and distorting familiar forms and architectural practices recurs throughout Tschumi's work, which prior to the Parc de la Villette project had largely taken the form of theoretical drawings and written texts like The Manhattan Transcripts (1976-81).

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第6張圖片
▲ 該公園是巴黎北部地區的復興項目
The park forms part of a rejuvenation of an area of northern Paris


該公園建在巴黎屠宰場和肉類批發市場的舊址上,屬于巴黎第19區城市更新項目。

Tschumi的計劃圍繞著現有的和擬建的建筑進行安排,包括巨大的科學與工業博物館建筑(完成于1986年),以及幾間音樂會場館和巴黎音樂學院等。

The park was built on the former site of the Parisian slaughterhouses and wholesale meat market, as part of the redevelopment of the area in the 19th arrondissement.
Tschumi's plan was arranged around existing and proposed buildings, including the enormous City of Science and Industry museum (completed in 1986), as well as several concert venues and the Conservatoire de Paris.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第7張圖片
▲ 它圍繞一系列文化建筑規劃設計。攝影:J M Monthiers
It was planned around a series of cultural buildings. Photo is by J M Monthiers


該設計基于一系列作為基礎的點、線、面,參考了20世紀早期解構主義藝術家的作品,包括Wassily Kandinsky的著作《點線面(point and line to plane)》(1926年)等。

在維萊特公園內,點由各種紅色的建筑體塊布局而成,它們被安排在一個120 x 120平方米的網格系統中。

盡管公園內的布局井然有序,但它們與場地現有建筑、景觀空間和穿越場地的兩條運河并不協調的空間關系構成了不同的交叉點和空間體驗。

The design is based on a series of points, lines and surfaces, which references the work of constructivist artists in the early 20th century, including Wassily Kandinsky's influential book Point and Line to Plane (1926).
In the Parc de la Villette, the points are provided by the various red follies, which are arranged in a grid system of 120 x 120 square metres.
Despite the ordered distribution of the follies within the park, their differing contextual relationships with existing structures, green spaces and the two canals that traverse the site result in varied intersections and experiences.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第8張圖片
▲ 一條架空的人行步道穿過公園。攝影:Peter Mauss
A raised walkway runs through the park. Photo by Peter Mauss


基于經典軸線的布局的道路、景觀等線條系統被轉換成直線、彎曲或蜿蜒的步道,拓展公園的運動范圍,并引導使用者前往其最感興趣的目的地。

架空的人行步道沿著運河de l'Ourcq排列,從東到西穿過場地。其他的路徑在不同的方向上進行交叉和分裂,響應著場地內部和周圍區域的點。

公園的表面由一組圓形、正方形和三角形組成,被轉化成為綠色空間以及用于娛樂或舉辦活動的硬質鋪裝區域。這些表面被扭曲,形成了一個由扭曲和破碎的路徑連接而成的斷裂地形。

A system of lines based on classical axes is translated into straight, curved or meandering promenades that promote movement through the park and guide users towards points of interest.
An elevated walkway follows the Canal de l'Ourcq, which crosses the site from east to west. Other paths intersect and splinter off in different directions, responding to points within the site and the surrounding area.
The park's surfaces comprise a set of circles, squares and triangles translated into green spaces and paved areas used for recreation or hosting events. These surfaces are warped to create a fractured topography connected by the twisted and broken paths.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第9張圖片
▲ 每個展館作為建筑單體都有獨特的形式
The pavilions each have a unique form


公園內部的十個主題花園分隔了廣闊的場地,為游客提供了放松、互動、聚集和玩耍的機會,其中包括鏡園、風園、竹園、青春園和龍園等。

公園周圍的建筑單體是基于一個12米高的立方體而設計建造的,它被分離成不同的組件,然后重新組合成藝術裝置。

每個獨特的建筑單體結構都是通過混凝土和紅漆鋁板建造而成。其形式和顏色的重復創造出了一種連續感,它們之間的均勻間隔能夠幫助游客在公園內確定自己的方向。

就像公園的其他部分一樣,建筑單體的設計獨立于任何歷史先例而存在,甚至它們的功能也是任意的,有幾個自建成以來被用于各種不同的目的。

許多建筑單體的設計純粹是作為藝術雕塑,而其他的則提供了各式各樣的便利設施,包括咖啡館、售票處、瞭望臺和一間包含700個座位的音樂廳等。

Ten themed gardens break up the expansive site and provide opportunities for visitors to relax, interact, gather and play. These include a mirror garden, wind garden, bamboo garden, youth garden, and a dragon garden.
The follies positioned around the park are based on a 12-metre cube that is pulled apart into various components and then recombined to create artistic assemblages.
Each unique structure is built using concrete and red-enamelled aluminium panels. The repetition of forms and colour creates a sense of coherence and their even spacing helps visitors orient themselves in the large park.
Like the rest of the park, the follies are designed to exist independently of any historical precedents and even their functions are arbitrary, with several having been used for different purposes since their completion.
Many of the follies are purely sculptural, while others provide spaces for amenities including cafes, ticket offices, lookouts and a 700-seat concert hall.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第10張圖片
▲ 這些藝術化的展亭可以有多種用途。攝影:Sophie Chivet
The pavilions have a variety of uses. Photo is by Sophie Chivet


拉·維萊特公園的非正式、由于不同用戶使用而變換的空間以及建筑單體存在著爭議,公園也因其巨大的規模和缺乏歷史文化元素及與周圍環境的協調而受到批評。

然而,該項目實現了重新定義21世紀公園設計的目標。它并非把人們帶出城市,而是成為城市文脈的一部分,強調和提升人與公園之間的互動。

最終,該作品是Tschumi的“不連接的建筑”理論的體現,該理論為城市規劃提供了一種基于解構和去中心化而進行規劃設計的新方式。

Parc de la Villette's informal, user-defined spaces and buildings proved controversial and the park was also criticised for its vast size and lack of engagement with its historical context.
However, the project achieved the objective of redefining how a park could be designed for the 21st century. Rather than taking people out of the city, it became a part of the urban context that emphasises and promotes interaction between people and place.
Ultimately, the work proved influential as a manifestation of Tschumi's theory of an "architecture of dysjunction" that offered a new typology for urban planning based on de-structuring and de-centring programmatic requirements.

解構主義案例解析:如何在運動和破碎中找尋平衡?第11張圖片

插圖:Jack Bedford

The illustration is by Jack Bedford.

【專筑網版權與免責聲明】:本網站注明“來源:專筑網”的所有內容版權屬專筑網所有,如需轉載,請注明出處

專于設計,筑就未來

無論您身在何方;無論您作品規模大;無論您是否已在設計等相關領域小有名氣;無論您是否已成功求學、步入職業設計師隊伍;只要你有想法、有創意、有能力,專筑網都愿為您提供一個展示自己的舞臺

投稿郵箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向專筑投稿?

掃描二維碼即可訂閱『專筑

微信號:iarch-cn

登錄專筑網  |  社交賬號登錄:

 匿名

沒有了...
評論加載中,請稍后!

景觀 (688 articles)


商業區景觀 (225 articles)


公園 (267 articles)


解構主義 (18 articles)


亭子 (34 articles)


法國 (601 articles)


巴黎 (244 articles)


Bernard Tschumi (6 articles)



人与动杂交在线播放